提高阅读速度的三种方法

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3 Ways to Improve Speed Reading Skills
提高阅读速度的三种方法

编者按

近期将刊登几篇提高阅读速度的文章,这些文章都是由我挑选,由我的高二学生翻译的,本篇文章是胡文博同学翻译的,请大家多支持,如有不足,请各位不吝赐教。文章最后附有原文链接,如有兴趣,请点击。

Speed reading is one of many skills that can improve your reading comprehension and shorten your study time. Many scholars consider speed reading to be the same as skimming, pointing out that you cannot speed read a text and expect the same amount of comprehension that you would get if you read it at a normal pace.However, skimming is a helpful tool in pre-reading and in reviewing texts, as well as in quickly gathering targeted information.

速读是可以提高你对阅读的理解并且节省你的学习时间的众多技巧之一。许多学者认为速读和浏览一样,并指出你不可能在速读的同时期待得到和按正常速度阅读得到的理解一样。然而,浏览是一个在预览文章和复习文本时有用的技巧,同时对快速地收集目标的信息也很有效。

一、训练阅读技巧

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阅读字群,而不是逐字阅读。

Look at groups of words, not single words even if you do not want to not do it.

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If you read a text one word at a time, then this will slow your reading speed way down. However, if you can get into the habit of reading groups or chunks of words at one time, then you can read much faster.

· Start by trying to look at a group of three or four words at once, then work up to looking at an entire line of words.

· Focus on words that give the sentence meaning, such as the nouns and verbs and pay less attention to the filler words, such as “A, the, and, etc.”

· To see the biggest improvement in your speed reading skills, combine this technique with other speed reading techniques.

如果你一次只读一个单词,这会将你的阅读速度拖慢下来。但是,如果你能养成一次成组地或一堆文字地阅读的习惯,你会大大提升阅读速度。

一开始,尝试一次同时看三四个单词,然后渐渐地努力一次看一整行文字。

专注于那些给予句子意思的词,例如名词和动词,而少把注意力分散到填充的词汇,例如“一个,这个,和,等等”。为了使你的阅读技能的最大的提升,把这个技巧和其他阅读技巧结合起来。

02
用手来帮助阅读

Read with your hands.

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Use your finger to push yourself through the page. As you read, move your hand left to right under the text as if underlining it. Move your hand at the speed which you would like to read. You may start by moving at a slightly faster pace than your ordinary reading, and speed up on subsequent readings.

· While it used to be claimed that this use of the hand or finger “guided” the eye, it now appears that the finger sets the pace of reading rather than guiding its path. This is because it is difficult to pace the movements of your eyes, but easy to pace the movements of your hands.

· You can also use a pen or other object to pace yourself.

使用你的手指来把你带入到文章中。当你阅读时,在文本下方从左到右移动你的手好像你在标画一样。按照你阅读的速度来决定移动手指的速度。你在开始的时候可以移动地比你正常的阅读速度快一点,并且在接下来的阅读中逐渐提速。

以前人们认为这样使用手或手指“引导”了眼睛,现在看来手指指定了阅读的速度而不是指导阅读的路线。这是因为你很难掌控眼睛的移动,但是很简单控制手的移动。

你也可以使用笔或者其他物品来掌控你的速度。

03
扫描关键词

Scan for keywords.

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Scanning is a highly effective way of extracting answers from a text without really reading it. If you know exactly what you are looking for—a name, a date, a statistic, or a specific word—you can find it quickly by skipping over large chunks of the text. To scan, first visualize the word, number, or phrase you would like to find. Then, run your eyes rapidly over the text. The information you are looking for should pop out at you.

· Try scanning with your hands or a pen, preferably a blue or black pen. Experiment with shapes to see which gets you the quickest results.

快速浏览是一个非常有效的方式来从文本中提取答案而不用真正地阅读。如果你准确地知道你要寻找什么(一个名字、日期、数据、或者一个确切的文字),你可以通过跳跃一大块文字很快地找到。要浏览,首先你要把你要找的文字,数字或者短语记在心里。然后快速地用眼睛扫过文本。你要找的信息应该呈现在你眼前。

尝试用你的手或笔来浏览,最好是一个蓝色或黑色的笔。试一试哪一个形状的笔让你最快地找到结果。

04
大块儿阅读

Chunk the material.

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One of the reasons you read slowly is that you have to pause sometimes to understand what a passage is saying. You might also have to go back and reread things you have already read. To improve your speed reading, try to pause for reflection only at the end of a reading session (i.e. after about 15 to 20 minutes) or after finishing a section, such as chapter.

· To check for comprehension at the end of every speed reading session, write down keywords, or just summarize what you read in a few sentences or by explaining it to someone. This will help you keep to improve your comprehension, and it will also help you to retain information better.

阅读速度慢的一个原因是你有时候不得不暂停来理解文章在讲什么。你可能不得不回读一遍你已经读过的东西。为了提高你的阅读速度,尝试只在阅读部分的最后暂停来反思(例如在15到20分钟后),或者在完成一个部分后,例如一章节。

为了在每个速读部分后检查你的理解,你可以写下关键词,或者直接总结一下你在几句中读到的和解释给其他人听。这将会帮助你提升理解能力,并且还会帮你更好地记住信息。

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限时训练

Race the clock.

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You can train yourself to read faster by timing yourself as you go. Start by getting your base time. Set a timer for fifteen minutes, and speed read as you normally do. When the timer goes off, check to see how far you got. Do not count the words, just the pages or paragraphs. Record your figures: for instance, you might write “15min/6.5 pages.”

· Check your comprehension. Say what you learned out loud—you don’t need to write it down, just check to see that you took in the information you were reading.

· The next day, set the alarm for 15 minutes again and try to read faster. Record your times again (“15 min/7 pages,” for instance), and check for comprehension.

· Do this every day or 5 days a week to improve your skills. Try to beat your last time every session.

· If you notice your comprehension is dropping, you may have reached your peak, or you may need to aim for a more moderate improvement in speed.

你可以通过给自己计时来训练自己阅读更快。从制定一个基础时间开始。把时间设定为15分钟,然后正常地速读。当时间结束时,检查自己已经读了多少。不要数字数,只数页数或者段落。记录下你的数据:例如,你可能会写“15分钟/6.5页”

检查你的理解。把你学习到的大声地说出来(你并不需要把它写下来),只用检查一下来了解你在阅读时得到了多少信息。

第二天,再一次把时间设定为15分钟并且尝试读地更快。再一次记录你的时间(例如,15分钟/7页),然后检查你的理解。

每天这样做或者一周做五天来提升你的技能。尝试在每个部分都有突破。

如果你发现你的理解在下降,你可能已经到达了你的顶端,或者你可能需要制定一个更适中的提升目标。

二、使用SQR3法

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纵览全篇

Survey the text.

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Before you read, read all titles, chapter and section headings, subheadings, and any charts, graphs, diagrams, questions, and summaries you can find.

· If you are reading a text without these things, you might consider reading the first and last sentence of every paragraph or chapter to get an idea of the material the text is covering.

在你读之前,阅读所有的题目、章节和部分的题目、子题目、和所有你能找到的图表、图画、表格、问题还有总结。

如果你不知道这些的时候阅读文章,你可能会考虑阅读每段或每个章节的第一和最后一句来了解这篇文章包含的资料。

02
列出问题

Write questions.

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Write down any questions you hope your reading will answer. You will comprehend more if you go into the text knowing what you want to learn. If you are not sure what you want to learn, go through and turn every chapter heading, section title, etc. into a question. Try to guess what the text will teach you: ask yourself the question you think the text might answer.

· If you like, add further questions while you read.

把你希望你的阅读将会解答的问题写下来。如果你在读文章时知道你想要学习的,你将会理解地更多。如果你不确定你想要学什么,把所有的章节题目,部分的标题等等变成问题。尝试猜测这个文章会教给你什么:问你自己一个你认为文章可能回答的问题。

如果你喜欢,在你阅读时增加更深一层的问题。

03
阅读文本

Read or skim the text.

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Review your questions, then read the text. You may skim or scan, or you may just read at your current fastest pace.

· Depending on the length of the text, you may choose to read it all, or you may choose to read it in sections.

· For maximum comprehension, pause at the end of every section and think about what you have read. Answer the question if you can.

· For maximum speed, answer the questions once you have read the entire text.

复习你的问题,然后阅读文本。你可能会跳读或浏览,或者你可能用你现在最快的速度阅读。

根据文章的长度,你可能选择将它全部读完,或者你可能选择划分部分阅读。

为了最多的理解,在每个部分的最后暂停并思考你所读过的内容。如果你可以,回答这些问题。

为了最快的速度,一次回答你已经读的全部文本的所有的问题。

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回答问题

Recite the answers.

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Now that you’ve read, you should be able to answer the questions you asked yourself. Answer all the questions you have read. You do not have to write them down (unless that is your assignment), just recite them aloud.

· If you are pausing after each section, make sure you can recite the answer to that section before you move on to the next. If you cannot, go back and skim it again.

· If you feel you made an error in the framing of one of your questions, reframe it so that you can answer it.

现在你已经阅读完了,你应该可以回答你问自己的问题了。回答你已经读过的所有的问题。你不必把它们写下来(除非那是你的作业),只需大声地背诵出来。

如果你在每个部分后暂停,确保你可以在进行下一个部分之前背诵那一部分的答案。如果你不能,回去再浏览一遍。

如果你感觉你在设计你的问题时出现了错误,重新设计它让你能够回答。

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复习文本

Review the text.

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The final “R” in SQR3 is “review,” which will help you retain the information you have comprehended. Go back over the questions you have answered and see if you can still answer them from memory.

· If you cannot, skim the section again until you can.

SQR3中最后的“R”在就是“复习”,这将会帮助你记住你已经理解的信息。回去看你已经回答的问题并且检测你是否还能根据记忆回答他们。

如果你不能理解,再一次浏览这个部分直到你可以。

三、准备好自己

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扩大词汇量

Expand your vocabulary

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Running into words you don’t know is one of the great bogs of speed reading. You’re likely to get stuck on words with meanings you don’t know, and likely to miss key information. To expand your vocabulary, read more. When you don’t know a word, look it up.

· If you are reading a certain genre of text, such as a medical textbook, it will help to study basic medical jargon before you start reading.

· Reading broadly in the fields that interest you will expand your vocabulary.

碰到你不认识的词汇是速读中最大的泥潭之一。你很可能在你不懂其意思的单词上卡住,并且可能错过关键的信息。为了扩展你的词汇,请更多地阅读。当你不知道一个词汇时,用字典查出来。

如果你正在读某一类型的文章,例如医学教科书,在你开始阅读之前学习基本的医学术语会有帮助。

广泛地阅读你感兴趣的领域的书籍会扩展你的词汇。

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有策略地选择选择文本

Choose strategic texts.

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Because you’ll always be trading some of your comprehension when reading at breakneck speed, you might want to save speed reading for texts that are somewhat easy or that you won’t be tested on. For instance, you might choose to speed read a book that is written for young adults. Or, you might speed read a book that you need to read for a class, but that will not be on any exams or tests. Another good choice for speed reading would be a text you have read before that you would like to review.

· Avoid speed reading texts that you really need to know, such as material you will be tested on.

· Avoid speed reading texts that require you to subvocalize or analyze while you read, such as poetry or fiction. You will miss out on the most important information.

因为在你以很快的速度阅读时你将会丢失掉一些理解,所以你可能会想对一些简单的文本或那些你不会被测试的文本来进行速读。例如,你可能会选择速读一本给年轻人写的书。或者,你可能会速读一本你需要在课堂阅读的书,但是那本书并不会在任何测验和考试中用到。另一个很好的速读选择是一个你已经读过的书目来进行复习。

避免速读你真正需要去知道的文本,例如你将会被测试的材料。

避免速读你需要在阅读时默读或分析的文本,例如诗歌和小说。你将会漏掉最重要的信息。

03
做笔记

Take notes.

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If comprehension is your goal, then processing what you just wrote is your best tool. After you’ve completed your speed reading of a text, take some time to reflect on it. Write down key ideas, discuss them with a friend, or just free-write about your impressions.

· Don’t make marks or highlight the text—this will interfere with your speed reading, and it may distract you from the information you are trying to absorb.

做笔记。如果理解是你的目标,那么处理你刚刚写的是你最好的工具。在你完成了对文本的速读之后,用一些时间来反思。写下关键词,和朋友讨论他们,或者就关于你的印象进行自由写作。

不要在文本上标记或标画,这将会干扰你的阅读速度,并且分散你要收集信息的精力。

你的评论可以尖锐,也可以湿疣!