Liu Yuxi Poem: Mount Western Fort – 刘禹锡《西塞山怀古》

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西塞山[1]怀古

刘禹锡

王濬[2]楼船[3]下益州,

金陵王气黯然收。

千寻铁锁沉江底,

一片降幡出石头[4]

人世几回伤往事,

山形依旧枕寒流。

今逢四海为家日,

故垒萧萧芦荻[5]秋。

注释:

[1] 西塞山:位于今湖北省大冶县东,长江中流的要塞之一。

[2] 王濬:西晋大将,曾被晋武帝任命为益州(今四川成都)刺史,后受诏讨伐东吴。

[3] 楼船:有楼的大船。古代多用作战。

[4] 石头:石头城,位于南京清凉山,孙权时建城。

[5] 芦荻:荻,长得像芦苇,这里是指芦苇等杂草。

Liu Yuxi was a Chinese poet, philosopher, and essayist, active during the Tang dynasty.

Mount Western Fort

Liu Yuxi

The Northern galleys went along the stream;

The Eastern kingdom vanished like a dream.

The iron chains could not bar the barges light;

The Eastern king surrendered with flags white.

How many times have we grieved over the past!

Mountains commanding the river still last.

We’re glad the world is unified today,

But the fort shivers to see the reed sway.

The King of Wu in the East tried to bar the river with iron chains, but the galleys of Jin in the North broke through and captured the King of Wu in 280. The fort shivers for it has witnessed the rise and fall of kingdoms.

《西塞山怀古》是唐代诗人刘禹锡的作品。此诗怀古伤今。前四句,写西晋灭吴的历史故事,表现国家统一是历史之必然,阐发了事物兴废决定于人的思想;后四句写西塞山,点出它之所以闻名,是因为曾经是军事要塞,而今山形依旧,可是人事全非,拓开了诗的主题。全诗叙说的内容是历史上的事实,状摹的景色是眼前的实景,抒发的感叹是诗人胸中的真情。诗人巧妙地把史、景、情完美地揉合在一起,使得三者相映相衬,相长相生,营造出一种含蕴半瞻的苍凉意境,给人以沉郁顿挫之感。

The poem “Wistfulness of the Xisai Mountain” is a work by Liu Yuxi, a poet of the Tang Dynasty. The first four lines of the poem are about the historical story of the destruction of Wu by the Western Jin Dynasty. In the first four lines, he writes about the historical story of the destruction of Wu by the Western Jin Dynasty, showing that the unification of the country is a historical necessity and expounding the idea that the rise and fall of things is determined by people; in the second four lines, he writes about Xisai Mountain, pointing out that it is famous because it was once a military fortress. The content of the poem is the historical facts, the scenery is the actual scene in front of the eyes, and the lamentation is the poet’s true feelings in his chest. The poet cleverly combines history, scenery and emotion perfectly, making the three reflect each other and grow together, creating a bleak mood with half-zhan, giving people a sense of sullenness and stagnation.

Liu Yuxi 刘禹锡

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